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Questions and Answers

E. F.—1. The accent in rag-time ordinarily falls on the beat that should have the accent regularly. In many cases, however, a special accent is marked to make the syncopation more distinct.

2.  The execution of a note with the regular accent mark > over it and a staccato dot under the accent is a strong accent with a staccato-touch; when over a note is placed a short, straight line with a dot under it, it indicates the same thing as the first, but no strong accent.

3.  When a group of seven notes is to be played to an accompaniment of three notes, each hand ought to be independent. The irregular effect is what is desired by the composer. It is not well to divide it into two groups of two notes and one of three.

S. G. C.—1. We are not acquainted with a text­book that uses the term “complementary” scales. From the ordinary meaning of the word we should think it may be equivalent to “related” scales.

2.  The lowered notes in a scale are the super-tonic, mediant, submediant, and leading note. Some writers also lower the dominant chromatically. The lowered supertonic becomes the root of a major chord; it usually progresses to the dominant, with or without seventh, or to the tonic chord, generally second inversion. The lowered mediant may be har­monized to the minor third of the tonic; as the fifth of a major chord on the submediant; as the minor thirteenth from the dominant (or as an auxiliary note to the fifth of the dominant); as the minor ninth to the supertonic. The lowered submediant may be the root of a major chord; it may be the third of a minor chord on the subdominant; the fifth of a diminished chord on the supertonic, or the fifth of a major chord on the lowered supertonic. The lowered leading note is best harmonized as the seventh of the tonic. It can be harmonized effectively by some chords borrowed from nearly related keys.

3.  A diatonic sequence is one which does not re­quire intervals to be exactly reproduced, while a har­monic sequence does. For example, C—E—D—C, and D—F—E—D, form a diatonic sequence, while C—E—D—C and D—F-sharp—E—D make a har­monic sequence.

4.  The harmonic minor scale may be illustrated by the succession A, B, C, D, E, F, G-sharp, A. (Note the interval of an augmented second between the 6th and 7th notes.) In the melodic minor the F is also raised.

E. E.—A perfect interval is one which, when in­verted, remains perfect, as octaves and primes, fifths and fourths. The use of the term goes back to the early theorists, who accepted only octaves, fourths, and fifths as the pure harmonic combinations. When later thirds and sixths were accepted the distinction between the larger and the smaller form of each was indicated by the Latin words major and minor. Thus the letters C and E could be used in forming the two intervals C—E or C—E-flat, major and minor thirds. When this interval is lessened still more by raising the lower note, the interval is said to be diminished.

2. Intervals should be viewed as harmonic combina­tions. A diminished second is not possible, since if the lower note of the minor second C—D-flat be raised, the C-sharp and the D-flat become enharmonically the same. There is no chord-combination that would contain a C-sharp and a D-flat at the same time, unless by miswriting. So also of dimin­ished sixths, augmented thirds and sevenths. C-sharp —A-flat, C—E-sharp, C to B-sharp, are not regular harmonic combinations. See also The Etude for November, 1901, page 415, answer to M. G.

N. L. W.—The title “Old Hundredth” as applied to the familiar tune is correct. It takes the name from having been used with the hundredth psalm. Hence “Old Hundred” is not correct.

E. R. F.—1. The Voice Magazine is published by Edgar S. Werner, New York City.

2.  The new work by Madame Nordica is not yet published. We have not yet seen any announcement as to who will issue the book.

3.  There is no special treatise on the tenor voice.

M. W. D.—1. In the United States the leading orchestras are the Chicago, Theodore Thomas, conductor; Cincinnati, Frank Van der Stucken; Pitts­burgh, Victor Herbert; Philadelphia, Fritz Scheel; Boston, Wilhelm Gericke; Philharmonic, of New York City, Emil Paur. In Europe are the Gewandhaus and Berlin Philharmonic, under the direction of Arthur Nikisch; the Kaim, Felix Weingartner; the Colonne in Paris; Mr. Henry Wood, in London, is in charge of a very good orchestra; the Leipzig Phil­harmonic, Hans Winderstein; Imperial Orchestra of Vienna, Gustav Mahler.

2. For a work of general musical biography we recommend Kiemann’s “Dictionary of Music,” which the publisher of The Etude can furnish at $4.50 re­tail.

O. R.—In part-writing it is well that voices should not cross, particularly an inner and an outer voice. Two inner voices, like alto and tenor, may occasion­ally cross, but it should only be for a few notes, and to justify it there must be a clear necessity.

A. T. B.—1. In vocal music written on two staves, small notes are sometimes used to indicate optional notes for the instrument that furnishes the accom­paniment. In music for Sunday-school use the organ- part to a duet is often written in small notes.

2. An accidental has effect only in the octave and voice, and in the measure in which it occurs. If a note chromatically altered be the last one in a meas­ure, and be tied over to the first note in the next measure the accidental need not be repeated.

N. S.—1. Franz Behr was born July 22, 1837, in Lubtheen in Mecklenburg, and lived as teacher and composer in Vienna, Budapest, Leipzig, and later in Paris.

Carl Bohm was horn in Berlin, September 11, 1844; was educated in that city; and was a pupil of Loeschhorn, Geyer, and Reiszmann.

A. W.—1. It is better to teach both the harmonic and melodic forms of the minor scale, carefully ex­plaining their structure and pointing out their points of difference. The mixed form of the minor scale (melodic ascending and harmonic descending) is of little value, either theoretical or practical.

2. The minor scales in thirds, sixths, tenths, and contrary motion afford splendid practice, and should not he neglected.

C. B. M.—1. Judging from your letter, it seems as though you were trying to crowd too much instruc­tion into your half-hour period, especially with your advanced pupils. Many teachers pursue the plan of alternating technical work and pieces, finding it very satisfactory. For instance: at one lesson have phys­ical exercises or table-work, technics, and one or two etudes; at the next, a classic or modern piece, or perhaps both, reserving about ten minutes for theory or ear-training. We would advise you to adopt this plan, as it seems admirably suited to your needs.

2. The scales should never be neglected, and should be thoroughly taught, beginning as early as possible and proceeding slowly, but surely. The study of the scales should he preceded by thorough explanation of and practice in the various motions used in correct thumb- and finger- crossings, and by exercises founded on these. The scales should not be attempted before the crossings are absolutely mastered. The difficulty you experience in having your pupils remember the scale-fingerings is probably due to the fact that you proceed too rapidly. It is not well to assign a new scale until the previous assignment has been com­pletely mastered.

3.  All technical work necessary for beginners will he found in “First Steps” and for the first month or two, at the very least, it will be unnecessary to use any outside material.

J. R. T.—For a class of young beginners in theory we would recommend Skinner’s “First Year in Mu­sical Theory” as being especially well adapted. For such a class, also exercises in ear-training, such as found in Heacox’s book on the subject, and studies in time and rhythm, as in Allinson’s book, would also prove suitable and beneficial.

M. E.—In the case of two or more notes written together, any embellishment-sign, such as a turn, trill or mordent, would affect only that note immedi­ately above or below which it is placed; in no case will it affect both notes. If more than one note is to be affected by the embellishment an additional sign must be used.

 T. I.—The passages quoted from the “Hungarian Rhapsody,” No. 6, by Liszt, with the slur written over two repeated notes or chords, the first of which is accented and the second dotted, should be executed non-legato, with a strong accent on the first note or chord and a snappy staccato on the second, thus giv­ing to the passage the piquant, almost jerky charac­ter peculiar to the Hungarian gipsy rhythms.

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