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D. C.—There is no rule why the writer of a work on counterpoint, such as Dr. Clarke’s, should, in a Cantus in the key of C, introduce an F-sharp, which makes a modulation to the key of G. This is one of the privileges of a maker of text-books. He introduces what he thinks is necessary for students. Even the strictest writers on the subject occasionally use modulations.

H. J. M.—Generally speaking, the playing of wind instruments is more or less injurious to the singer. The shaping of the mouth and throat, and the use of the muscles involved is different from that necessary in singing, and much more straining; it tends to tighten the throat, while the singer’s aim is the utmost freedom. Besides, the use of the throat in singing and playing puts a double burden on it, either alone being sufficient. Yet we would not discourage the average amateur singer from playing such an instrument as the flute or clarinet if it seem desirable.

S. B.—1. The alto clef is written on the third line of the staff; the mezzo-soprano on the second line, and indicates the position of middle C. There is no separate clef for the baritone, which uses the bass clef. The tenor clef (C) is written on the fourth line. This also indicates the position of middle C.
2. In guitar music a figure inclosed in a circle indicates the position corresponding to the figure.

M. S. L.—The name “Coronation” concerto has been applied to Mozart’s Concerto in D on the strength of the statement that he played it at a concert in connection with the coronation of the Emperor Leopold, October 9, 1790.

D. N.—1. In a quartet choir the tenor is usually on the same side as the soprano, the alto and the bass on the same side, the ladies being in the center. The soprano and tenor should be on the treble side of the instrument.
2. Do not make very much use of interludes in playing hymn-tunes in church. If a congregation does not rise until the last verse of some hymn, you may play an interlude while they rise.
3. When a note has two stems, both voices sing the note.
4. If two parts, say, soprano and alto, are printed with different-sized notes, it may be taken as an indication that the part printed in small notes can be used or not, at discretion.
5. Op. 5 means opus 5, that is, the fifth piece or set of pieces by the composer.
6. The figures 3, 4, 5, 6, etc., found on the outside of some sheet music indicate the price, 30, 40, 50, 60 cents, and so on.
7. The double flat and the double sharp are used to alter chromatically a note already flatted or sharped. Thus, in the key of D-flat, the sixth of the scale is B-flat; if this is to be lowered the double flat must be used; in the key of B, F-sharp, if to be raised, is made F-double sharp.

M.-We regret to say that we have no material at hand from which to make sketches of Parlow, Grenzbach, and Lanciani. The first named lives in Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. He has published some very easy pieces under the nom de plume of Alfred Giuliani.

E. S.—A young pupil, seven years of age, possessing such unusual talent and having made such rapid progress as you describe should be handled with extreme care. In the case of such a pupil many important technical points may be overlooked in the natural desire to advance the pupil which might later develop into grave faults. Do not proceed too hastily and do everything thoroughly and well.

M.— 1. Music may be best memorized as follows: First, by analysis of the piece, motive by motive, phrase by phrase; second, by a careful study of the technical requirements of the piece, the fingering, including crossings, expansions, contractions, etc.; third, the ear should be brought into play to correct and to assist the memory. This methodical and practical method of memorizing has been pursued by many with gratifying results.
2. The only way to learn to read at sight is to read regularly and systematically, beginning with something so easy as to be readily mastered and proceed by slow stages. If your pupil cannot read hymn-tunes at sight try something much easier to begin with and stick at it until something is accomplished. If this pupil has trouble with the arpeggios, very likely the crossings are improperly made and the hand-position incorrect.

X. Y. Z.—1. If a pupil with large hands has difficulty with chord-playing, it must be that the hands are not flexible. Try physical exercises and massage.
2. In the second book of Mason’s “Touch and Technique” you will find admirable suggestions for an exhaustive study of the scales.
3. In “Chords and Arpeggios,” by Orem, you will find all necessary material for this work.


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