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Short Biographical Notes Upon Italian Musicians

Amati (Ah-mah'-tee). A celebrated family of violin makers of Cremona, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, of whom Nicoli Amati, 1596-1694, was most noted.
 
Ambrose, St., Bishop of Milan. He lived about 374- 397, and with Pope Gregory was one of the chief founders of church music—especially plain-song.
 
Bardi. (See Peri.)
 
Bellini (Bell-leen'-nee), Vincenzo. Opera composer, 1801-35. (See Gallery.)
 
Bergonzi (Bair-gon'-zee), Carlo. Violin maker of Cremona, 1715-55. Very successful pupil of   Stradivarius.
 
Boito (Boh-ee'-toh), Arrigo. Born at Padua, 1842. Composer of Mefistofele and other works. Librettist of Verdi's Otello and Falstaff. Highly esteemed by artists both as a poet and as a musician.
 
Bononcini (Boh-non-chee'-nee), Giovanni Batista. Modena, 1669; died about 1750. At one time Handel's rival in London as composer and impresario.
 
Bossi, Marco E. Brescia, 1861. Famous organist and composer.
 
Buonamici (Boo-oh-nah-mee'-chee), Giuseppe. Florence, 1846. Famous pianist and pupil of Billow.
 
Busoni (Boo-zohn'-ee), Feruccio. Florence, 1866. Distinguished contemporary piano virtuoso, composer and editor. Author of excellent piano transcription of Bach's 48 preludes and fugues for the organ.
 
Caccini (Cah-chee'-nee), Giulio. Rome, 1558; died about 1615. One of the followers of the "new school" and one of the originators of oratorio.
 
Caldara (Cahl-dah'-rah), Antonio. Venice, 1670; died Vienna, 1736. Noted composer.
 
Campanari (Cahm-pah-nah'-ree), Leandro. Born Venice, 1857. Noted contemporary violinist and famous conductor.
 
Campanari (Cahm-pah-nah'-ree), Giuseppe. Born in Venice, i860. Noted opera singer and 'cellist.
 
Campanini (Cahm-pah-nee'-nee), Italo. Parma, 1845- 96. Noted operatic tenor.
 
Carissimi (Cah-riss'-ee-mee), Giacomo. Born near Rome about 1604; died 1674. Composer of oratorio and a noted follower of Peri (q. v.) in the "new school."
 
Catalani (Cah-tah-lah'-nee), Angelica. Senigiglia, 1780; died Paris, 1849. Noted for her great vocal range, which extended to G in alt. Her bravura singing was most brilliant.
 
Cavalieri (Cah-vah-lee-air'-ee), Emilio del. Roman nobleman, 1550-99. One of the followers of Peri (q. v.) in the "new school." His chief work is said to be the first example of oratorio.
 
Cavalli (Cah-vahl-yee), Francesco. Born Crema about 1600; died Venice, 1676. Famous composer of the "new school" and distinguished pupil of Monteverde.
 
Cherubim (Keh-roo-bee'-nee), Maria Luigi. Florence, 1760, and died Paris, 1842. Famous composer, theorist and director of the Paris Conservatoire. One of the greatest of musicians.
 
Cimarosa (See-mah-roh'-sah), Domenico. Born near Naples, 1749; died Venice, 1801. Famous operatic composer, whose works attained great popularity, and for a time even overshadowed those of Mozart.
 
Clementi (Kleh-men'-tee), Muzio. Born Rome. 1752; died in England, 1832. Famous pedagogue of pianoforte playing, whose "Gradus ad Parnassum" has been of inestimable value to thousands of piano students.
 
Costa (Koss-tah). Sir Michael. Born Naples, 1808, and died Brighton, England, 1884. Famous conductor and composer, who attained great success in England.
 
Cristofori (Kris-to-foh'-ree), Bartolomeo. Padua, 1653; died Florence, 1731. Inventor of the "hammer action," by which the piano is distinguished from the harpsichord.
 
Cuzzoni (Koo-tzoh'-nee). Francesca. 1700-70. Celebrated soprano.
 
Donizetti (Doh-nee-tset'-tee), Gaetano. Born Bergamo, 1797; died 1848. Celebrated operatic composer. (See Gallery.)
 
Errani (Air-rah'-nee), Achille. Born about 1823 (?); died New York, 1897. Famous tenor; teacher of Minnie Hauk and other singers.
 
Faccio (Fah'-tchee-o), Franco. Verona, 1841; died 1891. Conductor, composer and co-worker with Boito (q. v.).
 
Farinelli (Far-ee-nel'-lee). (Real name. Carlo Broschi.) Naples, 1705; died Bologna, 1782. One of the most famous of the Italian male voice sopranos.
 
Fenaroli (Feh-nah-roh'-lee), Fedele. 1730-1818. Celebrated composer and teacher of Cimarosa,   Zingarelli, Mercadante and others.
 
Florimo (Floh-ree'-moh), Francesco. Calabria, 1800; died Naples, 1888. Musical historian and composer.
 
Frescobaldi (Frehs-co-bahl'-dee), Giralomo. Ferrara, 1583; died 1644. One of the most famous of Italian organists and composers. Organist of St. Peter's, Rome, from 1608 to his death.
 
Gabrielli (Gah-bree-ell'-ee), Giovanni. Venice, 1557- 1612 (13). Organist of St. Mark's, Venice; chief composer of Venetian School.
 
Galilei (Gah-lee-leh'-ee), Vincenzo. Florence, about i533~i6oo. One of the founders of the "new school" and associate of Peri (q. v.).
 
Gasparo da Salo (Gahs-pah'-ro dah Sah-loh). (Also known as Bertolotti.) Born Salo about 1642, and died 1609. Famous as a maker of viols, viole de gamba and bass viols.
 
Giordano (Zhee-or-dah'-noh), Giuseppe. Naples, 1774; died 1798. Popular teacher in London. Successful and prolific composer.
 
Guarnerius (Gwahr-nair'-eus), Guarneri. A celebrated family of violin makers in Cremona, of whom the most famous was Giuseppe Antonio Stradivarius, 1683-1745 (about).
 
Guido d'Arezzo (Gwee'-doh dah-retz'-oh). Lived about 995-1050. Famous teacher of singing and one of the "inventors" of the staff. Was the first to introduce a system of Solmisation.
 
Jomelli (Yoh-mel-lee), Nicola. Born Aversa, near Naples, 1714; died 1774. Famous composer of opera and of Church music. Maestro of St. Peter's, Rome, 1749-54- Capellmeister to Duke of Wurtemburg, I754.
 
Lamperti (Lahm-pair'-tee), Francesco. Savona, 1813; died 1892. Noted teacher of singing.
 
Leoncavallo (Lay-on-ka-vahl'-yo), Ruggiero. Born Naples, 1858. Renowned composer. (See Gallery.)
 
Mancinelli (Mahn-chee-nell'-ee), Luigi. Orvieto, Papal States, 1848. Famous conductor of opera.
 
Marchesi de Castrone (Kahs-troh'-neh), Salvatore. Palermo, 1822; died 1908. Famous baritone and singing teacher. Husband of Matthilde Marchesi.
 
Mario (Mah-ree'-oh), Giuseppe. Born Cagliari, 1810; died 1883. Famous operatic tenor.
 
Martini (Mar-tee'-nee), Giambattista. Bologna, 1706- 84. Famous theorist, who numbered Gluck, Mozart and Gretry among his pupils.
 
Martucci (Mar-tootch-ee), Giuseppe. Capua, 1856; died 1909. Famous teacher and head of Bologna Conservatory, 1886.
 
Mascagni (Mahs-kahn'-yee), Pietro. Born Leghorn, 1863. Famous composer of Cavalleria Rusticana.
 
Mercadante (Mer-ka-dahn'-tee), Francesco S. R. Born Altamura, 1795; died Naples, 1870. Famous operatic composer.
 
Merulo (Meh-roo'-loh (or Merlotti). Born Corregio, 1533; died 1604. Famous organist of St. Mark's, Venice. Recognized as "head of the Venetian School."
 
Neri (Nair'-ree), Fillipo. Born Florence, 1515; died Rome, 1595. A priest who established "Oratory Lectures," from which Oratorio was evolved.
 
Pacini (Pah-chee'-nee), Giovanni. Born Catania, 1796; died Pescia, 1867. Composed over 80 operas.
 
Paganini (Pah-gah-nee'-nee), Niccolo. Genoa, 1782; died Nice, 1840. Possessed the greatest technic on
 
the violin ever known, and had great musical genius. One of the most remarkable personalities Italy ever produced.
 
Paisiello (Pah-ee-see-el'-loh), Giovanni. Born Taranto, 1741; died Naples, 1816. Wrote about 100 operas, and was very famous in his day, and was a great favorite of Napoleon Bonaparte.
 
Palestrina (Pah-les-tree'-nah), Giovanni Pierluigi da. Born at Palestrina, near Rome. (See Gallery.)
 
Pergolesi (Pair-go-lay'-zee), Giovanni Batista. Born Jesi, Papal States, 1710; died Pozzuoli. One of the greatest of Italian composers of sacred music.
 
Peri (Pair'-ee), Jacopo. A Florentine nobleman, born about i860; died at Florence about 1633. Composer of "the first opera." He was one of a distinguished band of intellectual folk who gathered at the houses of Counts Bardi and Corsi, for the discussion of Greek declamation. This resulted in the foundation of the "new school."
 
Perosi (Peh-ro'-zee), Don Lorenzo. Born Tortona, 1872. A contemporary priest-composer whose sacred compositions have attracted considerable attention.
 
Piccinni (Pitch-een'-nee), Nicola. Born Bari, 1728; died 1800. A celebrated composer of opera, at one time Gluck's chief rival.
 
Pinsuti (Pin-soo'-tee), Ciro. Born Sinalunga, Florence. Pupil of Rossini, and famous as composer of songs and part-songs. 1829-88.
 
Ponchielli (Pohn-kee-yell'-ee), Amilcare. Born near Cremona, 1834; died Milan, 1886. Regarded by many Italians as the greatest composer of opera after Verdi.
 
Porpora (Por-por'-ah), Niccola Antonio. Born Naples, 1686; died 1766 (or 7). Famous teacher of singing, and composer of many works.
 
Puccini (Poo-tschee'-nee), Giacomo. Born Lucca, 1858. Famous contemporary composer. His "Madame Butterfly" and other works are among the most popular operas of the day. Unquestionably the best of the younger school of Italian composers.
 
Raimondi (Rah-ee-mohn'-dee), Pietro. Rome, 1786- 1853. Famous master of counterpoint and writer of opera. He once wrote a fugue in 64 parts for 16 choirs.
 
Ricordi (Ree-kor'-dee), Giovanni. Violinist; Milan, 1785-1853. Founded the famous publishing house.
 
Rossini (Ros-see'-nee), Gioacchino Antonio. Born Pesaro, 1792; died Paris, 1868. One of the greatest melodists who ever lived. William Tell and his Stabat Mater are, perhaps, the best known of his works. Undoubtedly one of the greatest composers Italy has produced.
 
Sacchini (Sah-kee'-nee), Antonio M. G. Born near Naples, 1734; died Paris, 1786. Famous composer of opera and chamber music,
 
Salieri (Sah-lee-air'-ee), Antonio. Famous opera composer, born Legnano, Verona; died Vienna, 1825. Schubert was one of his pupils.
 
Sarti (Sar'-tee), Giuseppe. Famous director, born Faenza, 1729; died Berlin, 1802. Composer of many operas. Cherubini was a pupil of his. 4
 
Scarlatti (Scahr-laht'-tee), Alessandro. Born Trapani, Sicily, 1659; died Naples, 1725. Famous composer of opera, founder of the "Neapolitan School," and a great teacher and director. He introduced Accompanied Recitative.
 
Scarlatti, Domenico. Son of Alessandro. Born Naples, 1683 (5?); died 1757. Is regarded as the founder of modern pianoforte technic, and was selected to compete with Handel. On the organ Scarlatti came second, but on the harpsichord he equaled his great opponent.
 
Sgambati (Sgahm-bah'-tee), Giovanni. Born Rome, 1843. Pupil of Liszt, and famous contemporary pianoforte, virtuoso and composer. One of the best living musicians.
 
Spontini (Spohn-tee'-nee), Gasparo L. P. Born Majolati,   Ancona, 1774; died 185.1. Famous composer of opera. Ardent admirer of Mozart.
 
Stradivarius (Strah-dee-var'-ree-us), Antonio. Cremora, about 1649-1737. The most famous of all violin makers.
 
Tartini (Tar-tee'-nee), Giuseppe. Born Pirano, 1692; died Padua, 1770. Great violinist and composer of many works for the instrument, including the famous Trille du Diable.
 
Verdi (Vair'-dee), F. Giuseppe F. (See Gallery of Celebrated Musicians in this issue.)
 
Viotti (Vee-ot'-tee), Giovanni Batista. Born Fontaneto da Po, 1753; died 1824. Famous violinist, composer and impresario. His violin compositions are particularly beautiful.

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